199,252,233,226,228,224,229,231,234,235,232,239,238,236,196,197,201,230,198,244,246,242,251,249,255,214,220,162,163,165,8359,402,225,237,243,250,241,209,170,186,191,8976,172,189,188,161,171,187,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,9569,9570,9558,9557,9571,9553,9559,9565,9564,9563,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,9566,9567,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,9575,9576,9572,9573,9561,9560,9554,9555,9579,9578,9496,9484,9608,9604,9612,9616,9600,945,223,915,960,931,963,181,964,934,920,937,948,8734,966,949,8745,8801,177,8805,8804,8992,8993,247,8776,176,8729,183,8730,8319,178,9632,160); $CP850 = array(128=>199,252,233,226,228,224,229,231,234,235,232,239,238,236,196,197,201,230,198,244,246,242,251,249,255,214,220,248,163,216,215,402,225,237,243,250,241,209,170,186,191,174,172,189,188,161,171,187,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,193,194,192,169,9571,9553,9559,9565,162,165,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,227,195,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,164,240,208,202,203,200,305,205,206,207,9496,9484,9608,9604,166,204,9600,211,223,212,210,245,213,181,254,222,218,219,217,253,221,175,180,45/*173*/,177,8215,190,182,167,247,184,176,168,183,185,179,178,9632,160); $CP852 = array(128=>199,252,233,226,228,367,263,231,322,235,336,337,238,377,196,262,201,313,314,244,246,317,318,346,347,214,220,356,357,321,215,269,225,237,243,250,260,261,381,382,280,281,172,378,268,351,171,187,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,193,194,282,350,9571,9553,9559,9565,379,380,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,258,259,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,164,273,272,270,203,271,327,205,206,283,9496,9484,9608,9604,354,366,9600,211,223,212,323,324,328,352,353,340,218,341,368,253,221,355,180,45/*173*/,733,731,711,728,167,247,184,176,168,729,369,344,345,9632,160); $CP862 = array(128=>1488,1489,1490,1491,1492,1493,1494,1495,1496,1497,1498,1499,1500,1501,1502,1503,1504,1505,1506,1507,1508,1509,1510,1511,1512,1513,1514,162,163,165,8359,402,225,237,243,250,241,209,170,186,191,8976,172,189,188,161,171,187,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,9569,9570,9558,9557,9571,9553,9559,9565,9564,9563,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,9566,9567,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,9575,9576,9572,9573,9561,9560,9554,9555,9579,9578,9496,9484,9608,9604,9612,9616,9600,945,223,915,960,931,963,181,964,934,920,937,948,8734,966,949,8745,8801,177,8805,8804,8992,8993,247,8776,176,8729,183,8730,8319,178,9632,160); $CP864 = array(128=>176,183,8729,8730,9618,9472,9474,9532,9508,9516,9500,9524,9488,9484,9492,9496,946,8734,966,177,189,188,8776,171,187,65271,65272,65273,65274,65275,65276,160,160,45/*173*/,65154,163,164,65156,65157,65158,65166,1576,1578,1579,1548,1580,1581,1582,1632,1633,1634,1635,1636,1637,1638,1639,1640,1641,1601,1563,1587,1588,1589,1567,162,1569,1570,1571,1572,65226,65163,1575,65169,1577,65175,65179,65183,65187,65191,1583,1584,1585,1586,65203,65207,65211,65215,1591,1592,65227,65231,166,172,247,215,1593,1600,65235,65239,65243,65247,65251,65255,65259,1608,1609,65267,1590,65228,65230,1594,1605,65149,1617,1606,1607,65260,65264,65266,65232,1602,65269,65270,1604,1603,1610,9632,160); $CP866 = array(128=>1040,1041,1042,1043,1044,1045,1046,1047,1048,1049,1050,1051,1052,1053,1054,1055,1056,1057,1058,1059,1060,1061,1062,1063,1064,1065,1066,1067,1068,1069,1070,1071,1072,1073,1074,1075,1076,1077,1078,1079,1080,1081,1082,1083,1084,1085,1086,1087,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,9569,9570,9558,9557,9571,9553,9559,9565,9564,9563,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,9566,9567,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,9575,9576,9572,9573,9561,9560,9554,9555,9579,9578,9496,9484,9608,9604,9612,9616,9600,1088,1089,1090,1091,1092,1093,1094,1095,1096,1097,1098,1099,1100,1101,1102,1103,1025,1105,1028,1108,1031,1111,1038,1118,176,8729,183,8730,8470,164,9632,160); $CP895 = array(128=>268,252,233,271,228,270,356,269,283,282,313,205,318,314,196,193,201,382,381,244,246,211,367,218,253,214,220,352,317,221,344,357,225,237,243,250,328,327,366,212,353,345,341,340,188,161,171,187,9617,9618,9619,9474,9508,9569,9570,9558,9557,9571,9553,9559,9565,9564,9563,9488,9492,9524,9516,9500,9472,9532,9566,9567,9562,9556,9577,9574,9568,9552,9580,9575,9576,9572,9573,9561,9560,9554,9555,9579,9578,9496,9484,9608,9604,9612,9616,9600,945,223,915,960,931,963,181,964,934,920,937,948,8734,966,949,8745,8801,177,8805,8804,8992,8993,247,8776,176,8729,183,8730,8319,178,9632,160); $I88591 = array(128=>160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,45/*173*/,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,235,236,237,238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,253,254,255); $I88592 = array(128=>160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 160,260,728,321,164,317,346,167,168,352,350,356,377,45/*173*/,381,379,176,261,731,322,180,318,347,711,184,353,351,357,378,733,382,380,340,193,194,258,196,313,262,199,268,201,280,203,282,205,206,270,272,323,327,211,212,336,214,215,344,366,218,368,220,221,354,223,341,225,226,259,228,314,263,231,269,233,281,235,283,237,238,271,273,324,328,243,244,337,246,247,345,367,250,369,252,253,355,729); $W1250 = array(128=>8364,160,8218,160,8222,8230,8224,8225,160,8240,352,8249,346,356,381,377,160,8216,8217,8220,8221,8226,8211,8212,160,8482,353,8250,347,357,382,378,160,711,728,321,164,260,166,167,168,169,350,171,172,45/*173*/,174,379,176,177,731,322,180,181,182,183,184,261,351,187,376,733,317,380,340,193,194,258,196,313,262,199,268,201,280,203,282,205,206,270,272,323,327,211,212,336,214,215,344,366,218,368,220,221,354,223,341,225,226,259,228,314,263,231,269,233,281,235,283,237,238,271,273,324,328,243,244,337,246,247,345,367,250,369,252,253,355,729); $W1252 = array(128=>8364,160,8218,402,8222,8230,8224,8225,710,8240,352,8249,338,160,381,160,160,8216,8217,8220,8221,8226,8211,8212,732,8482,353,8250,339,160,382,376,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,45/*173*/,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,235,236,237,238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,253,254,255); function VypisTabulku(&$T, $zahlavi, $pata) { echo "
"; echo "
$zahlavi
"; for ($i=2;$i<8;$i++) { $n=$i*16; printf("%3d ", $n); for ($j=0;$j<16;$j++) { $c = $i*16+$j; if ($c==32) echo "  "; echo "&#$c; "; }; echo "\n
"; } for ($i=8;$i<16;$i++) { $n=$i*16; printf("%3d ", $n); for ($j=0;$j<16;$j++) { $c = $i*16+$j; echo "&#$T[$c]; "; }; echo "\n
"; } if ($pata != "") echo "

$pata

"; echo "
"; } // f.VypisTabulku ?>

Znakové sady

Éra o.s. MS-DOS

1980 ... MS DOS v.1
1991 ... MS DOS v.5
ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ISO = International Standardization Organization (1947)
7bitů ..... 128 hodnot
8b = 1B ... 256 hodnot

Příšerně žluťoučký kůň úpěl ďábelské ódy.
Ahoj kamaráde, jak se máš?
Tschüß Gefährte (de) - ciao paisà (it) -
hola compañero (sp) - ĝis burŝo (eo) -
cześć współtowarzysz (pl) - привет товарищ (ru)
(text je uložen v kódování UTF-8)
Ahoj kamarade, jak se mas?"); ?>

Ahoj kamarde, jak se m?"); VypisTabulku($CP895, "CP 895 - KEYBCS2 Kamenicky", "pern luouk k pl belsk dy\n
Ahoj kamarde, jak se m?"); ?>

Éra o.s. MS Windows

1987 ... ISO definovala standard iso8859-2 neboli Latin 2
1990 ... MS Windows v.3.0
1991 ... MS Windows v.3.1 ~ vznik kódovacích tabulek WindowsXXXX
problém - znaky šťž ŠŤŽ

Ahoj kamarde, jak se ms?"); VypisTabulku($I88592, "ISO 8859-2 - ISO Latin 2", "pern luouk k pl belsk dy
Ahoj kamarde, jak se m?"); ?>
Ahoj kamarde, jak se m?"); VypisTabulku($W1250, "Windows 1250", "pern luouk k pl belsk dy
Ahoj kamarde, jak se m?"); ?>

Unicode

1991 ... Unicode Consortium
UCS = Universal Character Set
UCS2 ... 2B kódování
UCS4 ... 4B kódování
problémy ucs2: 2x větší objem textu
               256x větší znaková sada
               nekompatibilita s 8b programy
UTF8 ... Unicode Transformation Format - převod znaku UCS do 1 až 3 bytů

(R.V. 10/2011)